Автор Тема: Помощь Запада СССР в 70-80е  (Прочитано 1841 раз)

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Помощь Запада СССР в 70-80е
« : 02 Октябрь 2010, 16:12:51 »

реальный план Даллеса

U.S.-Soviet Trade in the 1980s

Французы продали Советскому Союзу 1.1 миллиона тонн пшеницы по цене $77.5 за тонну, что в сентябре 1986 года
подразумевало субсидию со стороны французского правительства в размере $127.5 за тонну!



In the 1970s, East-West trade
increased by over 300 percent. The engine of booming trade was
an expanding Warsaw Pact debt; it grew from $8 billion in 1971 to
$82 billion in 1980. The major financers were Western commercial
banks, but substantial assistance was provided in the form of
loans from the Western governments and guarantees of private
loans. Between 1971 and 1980, government-backed lending to the
Warsaw Pact exceeded American funds channeled to Europe under the
Marshall Plan (even when measured in dollars adjusted for inflation).
The total government-backed debt owed to the West by the
Soviet Union is $17 billion, some 61 percent of their total debt
to the West.

Even more disturbing is the fact that much of this government
lending has been at subsidized below-market interest rates.
Typical was the Yamal gas pipeline. France and other governments
provided Moscow funds for the project at 7.8 percent interest
while prevailing rates in the West were 16 percent. According to
some estimates, interest rate subsidies reduced the overall cost
of the pipeline project to the USSR by half. In fact, it is
very unlikely that the Yamal pipeline would have been financially
feasible without the subsidization of Western governments.


The beginnings of a Western "debt lobby" can be seen in
the remarks by a Citicorp banker that the U.S. should not respond
negatively to the reimposition of totalitarian political control
in Poland: "Who knows which political system works ... the only
test we care about is can they pay their bills".

Similarly, Western bankers have supported politically the Yamal pipeline in
hopes that increased Soviet hard currency earnings may indirectly
help them recoup their loans to Poland.


In the 1970s the West followed a policy of expanding official
credits and trade with the East. This policy was often
accompanied by an unfounded belief that trade and credit would
have a moderating effect on Soviet behavior.

Far from it, Soviet aggression and expansionism actually increased during the period
of "detente", but Western credit policy has remained largely

A new policy is needed. It should permit non-strategic
trade on strictly commercial terms but would not allow any governmental
involvement in the terms of such trade. Specific elements
of such a policy could include an end to government underwriting
of loans or loan guarantees; no concessionary interest terms
permitted to borrowers in the Soviet bloc; and no preferential
tax treatment offered to any income derived from trade with the
Soviet bloc nations.

In this light, a policy of linkage may represent a possible
halfway house between the U.S. views and those of its allies.
Such a linkage policy would deny official credit supports to the
USSR while allocating rights to official credit supports among
the East European states on the basis of their human rights
records. Such an interim policy would be consistent with a unilateral
U.S. policy based on an expanded version of the
Jackson-Vanik Amendment (covering human rights issues beyond emigration).

In any event, the U. S. should continue to act forcefully on
this and other East-West trade issues. While criticized domestically
and abroad, President Reagan's strong stand on East-West
trade has, in fact, caused the Europeans to reassess their trade
and credit policies toward the Soviet bloc and to begin a process
of tightening such policies. The U.S. policy of leadership is
working and should be continued.